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 First Aid Tips
1. Bleeding

Bleeding is one of the common cause of death if it is not given due attention.

Care & Treatment
    Call Rescue 1122 for ambulance (if necessary):
1: Put on gloves if available.
2: Check the wound for foreign matter.
3: Apply pressure to stop any bleeding.
4: Bring the sides of the wound together and press firmly.
5: If a penetrating object is present:
    Build up padding around the object for bleeding control and support.
    Apply firm roller or triangular bandage to support padding.
6: Apply non-stick dressing and a firm roller bandage.
7: Immobilize and elevate the injured limb if injuries permit.

1: Do not remove any penetrating object.
2: Do not put pressure over penetrating object.


2. Electric Shock

If someone is adhered to the electric source, be careful not to touch the casualty's skin before the electric source is disconnected. Be alert for the presence of water or conducting materials which may be in contact with the casualty.

Domestic Voltage
    It is urgent to disconnect casualty either by:
1: Turning off the power supply and disconnecting plugs from the outlet
    and isolating the electricity supply at the main power board if possible; or
2: Remove the casualty from the electrical source by pushing or pulling
    them by non-conducting materials e.g.wooden stick, rope,
    curtains or blanket.


3. Head injuries

One must always take head injuries seriously. Always check patient's response and whether they have any alteration of consciousness.
    Head injuries are generally classified as:
    Open:  A head injury with an associated head wound.
    Closed:  With no obvious sign of injury.

Sign and symptoms
:   Head wounds
:   Deformation of the skull
:   Altered level of consciousness
:   Evidence level of consciousness
:   Headache
:   Raccoon eyes
:   Nausea and/or vomiting
:   Restlessness, irritability and confusion
:   Blurred of double vision

Care and Treatment
    Call Rescue 1122 for and ambulance:
1: Apply a cervical collar only if trained to do so.
2:   Treat any wounds                       
3:   Complete rest
4:   If unconscious, put casualty in the recover position while supporting the cervical spine
5: Allow any CFS to drain freely if in recovery position; put the injured side down with a pad cover the ear to allow drainage.


4. Diabetic Emergency
    Diabetes is a condition which is caused by an imbalance of sugar
    or glucose in the blood.

Sign and symptoms
:   Pale
:   Profuse sweating
:   Hunger
:   Confused
:   Rapid pulse
:   May appear to be drunk
:   Seizures
:   Unconsciousness

Care and Treatment
    Call Rescue 1122 for an ambulance when urgent
1:   If conscious
     5 sweets (barley sugar or similar), or
     3 glucose tablets, or
     Small glass of soft drink (not diet), or
     100 ml of lucozade
6: Repeat if casualty does not improve after 5-10 minutes
7:   on recovery, assist with the medication and encourage ingestion of carbohydrate food such as piece of fruit, a bowl of cereal, a sandwich or 2-4 dry biscuits.
8: If unconscious:
    :Call Rescue 1122 for immediate help:
    : Do not attempt in recover position injection.
    : Do not give ant food or drink by mouth to an unconscious diabetic


5. Heart Condition
    How the heart operates can be affected for various reasons and serious cardiac conditions develop. The major conditions are angina and heart attack.

Sign and Symptoms
:   Pales, cool skin
:   Chest pain or discomfort
:   Sweating
:   Rapid, irregular, or weak pulse
:   Rapid, shallow respiration or difficulty breathing
:   Partial or full collapse
:   Nausea and/or vomiting
:   May feel the need to go the toilet
:   Lethargy

Care and Treatment
   Call Rescue 1122 for an ambulance in urgency
1: Rest, position of comfort, usually sitting
2: Assist the casualty to take their medication
3: Allow casualty to take 1 aspirin tablet (300 mg) chewed slowly
4: Reassurance
5: Monitor vital signs


6. Poisoning
    Poisons are the substances that if inhaled, absorbed or injected, harm the structures or function of the body. Some types of poisons may act immediately on the body, others may act more slowly.

Signs and symptoms
:   Pale, cool, clammy skin
:   Nausea and/or vomiting
:   Bluish skin color
:   Headache
:   Burns around the mouth
:   Burning pain in the mouth or throat
:   Blurred vision
:   Ringing in the ears
:   Smell of fumes or odors
:   Stomach pains or cramps
:   Drowsiness which may lead to unconsciousness
:   Seizures
:   Breathing difficulties

Care and Treatment
    Call Rescue 1122 for an ambulance and for immediate action and after calling the ambulance:
1: Make the area safe by sealing containers or ventilating the area.
2: Rescue breaths as required.
3: Provide as much information as possible about the poisons when calling for help.
4: Keep any samples of vomited material.
5: Monitor the casualty at all times.

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